South Africa increases marine protection by new representative network of Operation Phakisa: Oceans Economy

  Objectives - aims            
Introduction and background
 
AIms and objectives
 
Documents for download
 
Gazetted MPA regulations
     
 
               
 
   

Introduction and background

 

In 2014, the Minister of Environmental Affairs, together with 16 other Cabinet colleagues, endorsed the plan to achieve, as part of Operation Phakisa: Ocean Economy, a viable marine protected area (MPA) representative network. The development of the Oceans Economy through Operation Phakisa is recognised widely as a bold, positive and proven way to proceed by pursuing both economic development and governance objectives at the same time. With the intensification of South Africa’s ocean economy, a sense of urgency to provide the necessary protection to a representative sample of marine ecosystems was eminent.

The oceans worldwide, including South Africa, are experiencing declines in health and resources caused by mounting environmental pressures such as pollution, climate change and high levels of exploitation of natural resources. Protection of a representative network of coastal and marine areas is considered one of the most effective and proven methods to turn around the decline in ocean health and resources. Thus, the proposal developed as part of Operation Phakisa: Oceans Economy, recommended an MPA representative network as a measure to resolve the problem. This was informed by both extensive scientific studies and considerations of other economic activities in the ocean environment. Other solutions such as compliance, enforcement and monitoring were considered to address the problem on a wider scale within the EEZ.

The proposal was supported by the Operation Phakisa initiative and thereafter gazetted by the Minister of Environmental Affairs for public comments. Further consultation and negotiations were held with relevant sector departments. Whilst most issues were resolved through modifications to the proposed network, certain competing interests between different users (primarily concerning the environment and mineral exploration and exploitation), remained. The network, together with its remaining issues, was escalated to Cabinet for their support regarding the declaration of the network of 20 MPAs. On the 24th of October 2018, Cabinet approved the network of 20 MPAs to be declared.

 

Aims and objectives 

 

  • To benefit fisheries stock, eco-tourism, medicinal resources and economic development through an increase in job opportunities and fisheries transformation.
  • To protect areas representative of all ecosystems, habitats and species naturally occurring in South Africa. Operation Phakisa MPAs will restore the already degraded marine environment and restore the replenished endangered marine species vulnerable to poaching.
  • To provide sufficient offshore protection, thus have positive benefits for offshore industries such as deep-sea trawling industry. 
  • To generate an increase in the protection of the marine environment that will, in turn, increase the protected areas estate. The increase in protection will potentially alleviate poverty in the fishing communities as there will be sustainable fish stocks in the marine ecosystems services.
 
 
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Documents for download

 

Gazetted regulations: [all available in PDF]

  1. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Addo Elephant National Park Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 777)
  2. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Amathole Offshore Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 778)
  3. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Agulhas Front Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 779)
  4. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Agulhas Bank Complex Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 780)
  5. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Aliwal Shoal Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 781)
  6. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Benguela Muds Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 782)
  7. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Browns Bank Corals Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 783)
  8. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Cape Canyon Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 784)
  9. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Childs Bank Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 785)
  10. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Namaqua Fossil Forest Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 786)
  11. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Namaqua National Park Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 787)
  12. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of iSimangaliso Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 788)
  13. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Port Elizabeth Corals Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 789)
  14. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Uthukela Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 790)
  15. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Orange Shelf Edge Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 791)
  16. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Southeast Atlantic Seamounts Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 792)
  17. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Protea Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 793)
  18. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Robben Island Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 794)
  19. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of South West Indian Seamount Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 795)
  20. National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, (57 of 2004): Regulations: Management of Agulhas Muds Marine Protected Area (42479 – GN 796)

 

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